Instructional Transaction Theory

Merrill, M. D., Li, Z., & Jones, M. K. (1990). Limitations of first generation instructional design (ID1). Educational Technology, 30(1), 7-11.

Merrill, M. D., Li, Z., & Jones, M. K. (1990b). Second generation instructional design (ID2). Educational Technology, 30(2), 7-14.

Merrill, M. D., Li, Z., & Jones, M. K. (1991). Instructional Transaction Theory: An Introduction. Educational Technology, 31(6), 7-12.

Merrill, M. D., Jones, M. K., & Li, Z. (1992). Instructional transaction theory: classes of transactions. Educational Technology, 32(6), 12-26.

Merrill, M. D., Li, Z., & Jones, M. K. (1992). Instructional Transaction Shells: Responsibilities, Methods ,and Parameters. Educational Technology, 32(2), 5-27. 

Merrill, M. D., & ID2_Research_Team. (1993). Instructional transaction theory: knowledge relationships among processes, entities and activities. Educational Technology, 33(4), 5-16.

Merrill, M. D., & ID2_Research_Group. (1996). Instructional transaction theory: instructional design based on knowledge objects. Educational Technology, 36(3), 30-37.

Merrill, M. D. (1998). Knowledge objects. CBT Solutions(March/April), 1-11.

Merrill, M. D. (2001a). A knowledge object and mental model approach to a physics lesson. Educational Technology, 41(1), 36-47.

Merrill, M. D. (2001b). Components of instruction toward a theoretical tool for instructional design. Instructional Science, 29(4-5), 291-310.

Merrill, M. D. (2002). Knowledge objects and mental models. In D. A. Wiley (Ed.), The Instructional Use of Learning Objects (pp. 261-280). Washington DC: Agency for Instructional Technology & Association for Educational Communications and Technology.

Automating Instructional Design

ID Expert

Merrill, M. D., & ID2_Research_Group. (1998). ID Expert: a second generation instructional development system. Instructional Science, 26, 243-262.

The Electronic Text Book

Merrill, M. D., & Thompson, B. M. (1999). The IDXelerator: Learning-Centered Instructional Design. In J. v. d. Akker, R. M. Branch, K. Gustafson, N. Nienke & T. Plomp (Eds.), Design Approaches and Tools in Education and Training (pp. 265-277). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

The Instructional Simulator

Merrill, M. D. (1999). Instructional Transaction Theory (ITT): Instructional Design Based on Knowledg Objects. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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